Conditions InDepth: Menopause
by Amy Scholten, MPH
Menopause is the natural end to menstruation. The average age of menopause in the US is 52 years old. However, it can start around age 40 and as late as around age 60. If menopause occurs prior to age 40, it is thought to be abnormal and is called premature menopause.
Menopause is the result of the depletion of egg cells from the ovaries and the reduction of female hormones. Menopause is considered complete when you have been without a menstrual period for a full year. Rather than a single point in time, menopause is a process or transitional period when women move away from the phase of life where reproduction is possible.
Menopause is a normal part of life. It marks the end of a long, slow process that begins when ovaries begin to produce less estrogen and progesterone. These female hormones are both important for normal menstrual cycles and successful pregnancy. An oophorectomy (removal of the ovaries) in women of reproductive age causes surgical menopause.
In addition to its role in reproduction, estrogen is an important hormone for maintaining bone health. It may also play important roles in heart health, skin elasticity, and brain function.
Stages of Menopause
What are the risk factors for menopause?
What are the symptoms of menopause?
How is menopause diagnosed?
What are the treatments for menopause?
Are there screening tests for menopause?
How can I reduce my risk of menopause?
What questions should I ask my doctor?
What is it like to live with menopause?
Where can I get more information about menopause?
Menopause. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114698/Menopause. Updated March 15, 2018. Accessed April 17, 2018.
Menopause basics. Office on Women's Health website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated October 20, 2017. Accessed April 17, 2018.
The menopause years. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at: https://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq047.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20130416T1306377302. Updated May 2015. Accessed April 17, 2018.
Last reviewed April 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review BoardMarcie L. Sidman, MD
Last Updated: 3/15/2015
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