Vitamin D Deficiency
by Krisha McCoy, MS
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's liver and fatty tissues. Vitamin D acts as both a vitamin and a hormone. Two of the main sources of vitamin D are food and sunlight. The ultraviolet rays of the sun react with cholesterol present on the skin and create previtamin D3. This compound goes through a series of reactions involving the kidneys and the liver. The final product is vitamin D.
Vitamin D deficiency describes low levels of vitamin D in the blood. This condition can lead to a condition known as rickets in children. In adults, it can lead to osteomalacia. These are two forms of bone diseases that weaken bones. It is important to contact your doctor if you think you have vitamin D deficiency.
Vitamin D deficiency can be caused by:
Risk Factors TOP
Risk factors include:
Wearing sunscreen may be a risk factor for vitamin D deficiency. But, organizations like the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) recommend that you use sunscreen to protect your skin from UV exposure, a known risk factor for skin cancer.
If your vitamin D deficiency is mild to moderate, you may not have any symptoms. If you have a severe deficiency, you may experience:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with blood tests.
Your bones may be tested. This can be done with bone tests.
Talk with your doctor about the best plan for you. Treatment options include:
To prevent vitamin D deficiency, take these steps:
Celiac Sprue Association
Office of Dietary Supplements—National Institutes of Health
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Updated November 14, 2009. Accessed December 22, 2014.
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Vitamin D deficiency in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated October 26, 2014. Accessed December 22, 2014.
Wagner CL, Greer FR, American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2008;122:1142-1152.
Last reviewed December 2014 by Michael Woods, MD
Last Updated: 12/20/2014
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