Conditions InDepth: Low Back Pain and Sciatica
by Debra Wood, RN
Low Back Pain
Low back pain is an ache or discomfort in the lower part of the spinal column. It may radiate down into one or both legs. The lower spinal column consists of small, stacked bones (the vertebrae) that surround and protect the spinal cord and nerves.
There are many possible causes for low back pain, including:
Sciatica is irritation of the sciatic nerve. It leads to pain that starts in the lower back and spreads to the buttocks and down the back of each thigh. The sciatic nerve is composed of several nerve roots that start from the lower part of the spinal cord. These nerves form a network that lead to individual nerves. These nerve bundles travel deep in the pelvis to the lower buttocks. From there, the nerve passes along the back of each upper leg and divides at the knee into branches that go to the feet.
Anything that causes irritation or puts pressure on the sciatic nerve can cause sciatica, including:
Low back pain is very common. Over the course of a lifetime, almost 80% of Americans will suffer from at least one episode of back pain. Most back pain gets better with time. A small number of people will continue to have pain for longer than 3 months. About 5%-10% of people with low back pain will have sciatica.
What are the risk factors for low back pain and sciatica?
What are the symptoms of low back pain and sciatica?
How are low back pain and sciatica diagnosed?
What are the treatments for low back pain and sciatica?
Are there screening tests for low back pain and sciatica?
How can I reduce my risk of low back pain and sciatica?
What questions should I ask my doctor?
What is it like to live with sciatica?
Where can I get more information about low back pain and sciatica?
Acute low back pain. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114958/Acute-low-back-pain . Updated October 25, 2017. Accessed December 27, 2017.
Chronic low back pain. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed... . Updated June 30, 2017. Accessed December 27, 2017.
Driscoll T, Jacklyn G, Orchard J, et al. The global burden of occupationally related low back pain: estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study. Am Rheum Dis. 2014;73(6):975-981.
Low back pain. Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases--conditions/low-back-pain. Updated December 2013. Accessed December 27, 2017.
Sciatica. Cleveland clinic website. Available at: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/12792-sciatica. Updated July 22, 2014. Accessed December 27, 2017.
Sciatica. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115166/Sciatica . Updated May 8, 2017. Accessed December 27, 2017.
Last reviewed November 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael Woods, MD, FAAP
Last Updated: 12/20/2014
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