Creatine is a naturally occurring substance that plays an important role in the production of energy in the body. The body converts it to phosphocreatine, a form of stored energy used by muscles.
Although the evidence for creatine is not definitive, it has the most evidence behind it among all the sports supplements. Numerous small double-blind studies suggest that it can increase athletic performance in sports that involve intense but short bursts of activity.
The theory behind its use is that supplemental creatine can build up a reserve of phosphocreatine in the muscles to help them perform on demand. Supplemental creatine may also help the body make new phosphocreatine faster when it has been used up by intense activity.
Although some creatine exists in the daily diet, it is not an essential nutrient because your body can make it from the amino acids L-arginine, glycine, and L-methionine. Provided you eat enough animal protein (the principal source of these amino acids), your body will make all the creatine you need for good health.
Meat (including chicken and fish) is the most important dietary source of creatine and its amino acid building blocks. For this reason, vegetarian athletes may potentially benefit most from creatine supplementation.
Therapeutic Dosages TOP
For bodybuilding and exercise enhancement, a typical dosage schedule starts with a "loading dose" of 15 to 30 g daily (divided into 2 or 3 separate doses) for 3 to 4 days, followed by 2 to 5 g daily. Some authorities recommend skipping the loading dose. (By comparison, we typically get only about 1 g of creatine in the daily diet.)
Creatine's ability to enter muscle cells can be increased by combining it with glucose, fructose, or other simple carbohydrates;1,2 in addition, prior use of creatine might enhance the sports benefits of carbohydrate-loading.3
Caffeine may block the effects of creatine.4
Therapeutic Uses TOP
Creatine is one of the best-selling and best documented supplements for enhancing athletic performance, but the scientific evidence that it works is far from complete. The best evidence we have points to potential benefits in forms of exercise that require repeated short-term bursts of high-intensity exercise; this has been seen more in artificial laboratory studies, though, rather than in studies involving athletes carrying out normal sports.5-10,70-72 It might also be helpful for resistance exercise (weight training), although not all studies have found benefit.34,35,55,57,61,73-74
Preliminary evidence suggests that creatine supplements may be able to reduce levels of triglycerides in the blood.12 (Triglycerides are fats related to cholesterol that also increase risk of heart disease when elevated in the body.)
Creatine supplements might also help counter the loss of muscle strength that occurs when a limb is immobilized, such as following injury or surgery;24,54,62 however, not all results have been positive.75
Studies, including small, double-blind trials, inconsistently suggest that creatine might be helpful for reducing fatigue and increasing strength in various illnesses where muscle weakness occurs, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure, dermatomyositis, Huntington's disease, McArdle's disease, mitochondrial illnesses, muscular dystrophy, and myotonic dystrophy.13,15-23,56,58,63,64,76,97,101,104
One study claimed to find evidence that creatine supplements can reduce levels of blood sugar.95 However, because dextrose (a form of sugar) was used as the “placebo” in this trial, the results are somewhat questionable.
Evidence from animal and open human trials suggested that creatine improved strength and slowed the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and for this reason, many people with ALS have tried it.14,15,20 However, these hopes were dashed in 2003 when the results of a 10-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 175 people with ALS were announced.59 Use of creatine at a dose of 10 g daily failed to provide any benefit at all in terms of symptoms or disease progression. Negative results were also seen in a subsequent, slightly smaller studies.65,106 Creatine also does not appear to strengthen muscles in people with wrist weakness due to nerve injury.77
Creatine has also shown some promise for improving mental function, particularly after sleep deprivation.78-79 However, in one small study, it showed no similar benefit in young adult subjects who were not sleep deprived.105
One study failed to find creatine helpful for maintaining muscle mass during treatment for colon cancer.80 Another study found little to no benefits in Parkinson's disease,93 and another failed to find benefit in schizophrenia.98
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Creatine? TOP
For example, a double-blind study investigated creatine and swimming performance in 18 men and 14 women.26 Men taking the supplement had significant increases in speed when doing six bouts of 50-meter swims starting at 3-minute intervals, as compared with men taking placebo. However, their speed did not improve when swimming 10 sets of 25-yard lengths started at 1-minute intervals. It may be that the shorter rest time between laps was not enough for the swimmers' bodies to resynthesize phosphocreatine.
Interestingly, none of the women enrolled in the study showed any improvement with the creatine supplement. The authors of this study noted that women normally have more creatine in their muscle tissue than men do, so perhaps creatine supplementation (at least at this level) is not of benefit to women, as it appears to be for men. Further research is needed to fully understand this gender difference in response to creatine.
In another double-blind study, 16 physical education students exercised 10 times for 6 seconds on a stationary cycle, alternating with a 30-second rest period.27 The results showed that individuals who took 20 g of creatine for 6 days were better able to maintain cycle speed. Similar results were seen in many other studies of repeated high-intensity exercise, although generally benefits are minimal in studies involving athletes engaged in normal sports rather than contrived laboratory tests.28-33,81-84
Isometric exercise capacity (pushing against a fixed resistance) also may improve with creatine, according to some, but not all studies.34,35,55,57,67,68,85-86
In addition, two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, each lasting 28 days, provide some evidence that creatine and creatine plus HMB (beta hydroxymethyl butyrate) can increase lean muscle and bone mass.36 The first study enrolled 52 college football players during off-season training, and the other followed 40 athletes engaged in weight training.
A 56-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 34 men and women found that creatine supplementation can reduce levels of triglycerides in the blood by about 25%.41 Effects on other blood lipids such as total cholesterol were insignificant.
Congestive Heart Failure TOP
Becoming easily fatigued is one unpleasant symptom of congestive heart failure. Creatine supplementation has been tried as a treatment for this symptom with some positive results.
A double-blind study examined 17 men with congestive heart failure who were given 20 g of creatine daily for 10 days.42 Exercise capacity and muscle strength increased in the creatine-treated group. Similarly, muscle endurance improved in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of 20 men with chronic heart failure.43 Treatment with 20 g of creatine for 5 days increased the amount of exercise they could complete before they reached exhaustion.
In a 2011 review of studies on creatine for heart failure, researchers found 6 studies to include in their analysis.107 A total of 1,226 people were enrolled in these studies. While the results did show that creatine may improve shortness of breath in these patients, the authors concluded that additional factors, like the dose and duration of treatment, needed to be determined and that larger studies were required before drawing a firm conclusion on the benefits of creatine for congestive heart failure. Other researchers have also pointed out the need for more studies.44
Safety Issues TOP
Creatine appears to be relatively safe.45 No significant side effects have been found with the regimen of several days of a high dosage (15 g to 30 g daily) followed by 6 weeks of a lower dosage (2 g to 3 g daily). A study of 100 football players found no adverse consequences during 10 months to 5 years of creatine supplementation.46 Contrary to early reports, creatine does not appear to adversely affect the body's ability to exercise under hot conditions and might even be beneficial.47,89, 94,96,99
Dividing the dose may help avoid gastrointestinal side effects (diarrhea, stomach upset, and belching). In one study of 59 male soccer players, two separate 5 g doses was associated with less diarrhea than a single 10 g dose.103
However, there are some potential concerns with creatine. Because it is metabolized by the kidneys, fears have been expressed that creatine supplements could cause kidney injury, and there are two worrisome case reports.48,49 However, evidence suggests that creatine is safe for people whose kidneys are healthy to begin with, and who don't take excessive doses.50,51,102 Furthermore, a 1-year, double-blind study of 175 people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis found that use of 10 g of creatine daily did not adversely affect kidney function.90 Nonetheless, prudence suggests that individuals with kidney disease, especially those on dialysis, should avoid creatine supplements.
Another concern revolves around the fact that creatine is metabolized in the body to the toxic substance formaldehyde.52 However, it is not clear whether the amount of formaldehyde produced in this way will cause any harm. Three deaths have been reported in individuals taking creatine, but other causes were most likely responsible.53
It has also been suggested that use of oral creatine would increase urine levels of the carcinogen N-nitrososarcosine, but this does not seem to be the case.91
As with all supplements taken in very high doses, it is important to purchase a high-quality form of creatine, as contaminants present even in very low concentrations could conceivably build up and cause problems.
References[ + ]
1. Green AL, Hultman E, MacDonald IA, Sewell DA, et al. Carbohydrate ingestion augments skeletal muscle creatine accumulation during creatine supplementation in humans. Am J Physiol. 1996;271:E821-E826.
2. Steenge GR, Lambourne J, Casey A, et al. Stimulatory effect of insulin on creatine accumulation in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol. 1998;275:E974-E979.
3. Nelson AG, Arnall DA, Kokkonen J, et al. Muscle glycogen supercompensation is enhanced by prior creatine supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1096-1100.
4. Williams MH, Branch JD. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: an update. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17:216-234.
5. Williams MH, Branch JD. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: an update. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17:216-234.
6. Balsom PD, Ekblom B, Soderlund K, et al. Creatine supplementation and dynamic high-intensity intermittent exercise. Scand J Med Sci Sport. 1993;3:143-149.
7. Mujika I, Padilla S. Creatine supplementation as an ergogenic acid for sports performance in highly trained athletes: a critical review. Int J Sports Med. 1997;18:491-496.
8. Mujika I, Padilla S, Ibanez J, et al. Creatine supplementation and sprint performance in soccer players. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:518-525.
9. Finn JP, Ebert TR, Withers RT, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation on metabolism and performance in humans during intermittent sprint cycling. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;84:238-243.
10. Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Bush JA, et al. Creatine supplementation enhances muscular performance during high-intensity resistance exercise. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997;97:765-770.
11. Williams MH, Branch JD. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: an update. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17:216-234.
12. Earnest CP, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. High-performance capillary electrophoresis-pure creatine monohydrate reduces blood lipids in men and women. Clin Sci (Colch). 1996;91:113-118.
13. Gordon A, Hultman E, Kaijser L, et al. Creatine supplementation in chronic heart failure increases skeletal muscle creatine phosphate and muscle performance. Cardiovasc Res. 1995;30:413-418.
14. Klivenyi P, Ferrante RJ, Matthews RT, et al. Neuroprotective effects of creatine in a transgenic animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat Med. 1999;5:347-350.
15. Tarnopolsky MA, Roy BD, MacDonald JR. A randomized, controlled trial of creatine monohydrate in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies. Muscle Nerve. 1997;20:1502-1509.
16. Borchert A, Wilichowski E, Hanefeld F. Supplementation with creatine monohydrate in children with mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. Muscle Nerve. 1999;22:1299-1300.
17. Matthews RT, Yang L, Jenkins BG, et al. Neuroprotective effects of creatine and cyclocreatine in animal models of Huntington's disease. J Neurosci. 1998;18:156-163.
18. Andrews R, Greenhaff P, Curtis S, et al. The effect of dietary creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle metabolism in congestive heart failure. Eur Heart J. 1998;19:617-622.
19. Schaufelberger M, Swedberg K. Is creatine supplementation helpful for patients with chronic heart failure? Eur Heart J. 1998;19:533-534.
20. Wyss M, Felber S, Skladal D, et al. The therapeutic potential of oral creatine supplementation in muscle disease. Med Hypotheses. 1998;51:333-336.
21. Tarnopolsky M, Martin J. Creatine monohydrate increases strength in patients with neuromuscular disease. Neurology. 1999;52:854-857.
22. Walter MC, Lochmuller H, Reilich P, et al. Creatine monohydrate in muscular dystrophies: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Neurology. 2000;54:1848-1850.
23. Vorgerd M, Grehl T, Jager M, et al. Creatine therapy in myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle disease): a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Arch Neurol. 2000;57:956-963.
24. Op 't Eijnde B, Urso B, Richter EA, et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on human muscle GLUT4 protein content after immobilization. Diabetes. 2001;50:18-23.
25. Williams MH, Branch JD. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: an update. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17:216-234.
26. Leenders N, Sherman WM, Lamb DR, et al. Creatine supplementation and swimming performance. Int J Sport Nutr. 1999;9:251-262.
27. Balsom PD, Ekblom B, Soderlund K, et al. Creatine supplementation and dynamic high-intensity intermittent exercise. Scand J Med Sci Sport. 1993;3:143-149.
28. Mujika I, Padilla S. Creatine supplementation as an ergogenic acid for sports performance in highly trained athletes: a critical review. Int J Sports Med. 1997;18:491-496.
29. Williams MH, Branch JD. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: an update. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17:216-234.
30. Balsom PD, Ekblom B, Soderlund K, et al. Creatine supplementation and dynamic high-intensity intermittent exercise. Scand J Med Sci Sport. 1993;3:143-149.
31. Mujika I, Padilla S, Ibanez J, et al. Creatine supplementation and sprint performance in soccer players. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:518-525.
32. Gilliam JD, Hohzorn C, Martin D, et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on isokinetic torque production. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:993-996.
33. Finn JP, Ebert TR, Withers RT, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation on metabolism and performance in humans during intermittent sprint cycling. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;84:238-243.
34. Williams MH, Branch JD. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: an update. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17:216-234.
35. Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Bush JA, et al. Creatine supplementation enhances muscular performance during high-intensity resistance exercise. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997;97:765-770.
36. Kreider RB. Dietary supplements and the promotion of muscle growth with resistance exercise. Sports Med. 1999;27:97-110.
37. Balsom PD, Harridge SDR, Soderlund K, et al. Creatine supplementation per se does not enhance endurance exercise performance. Acta Physiol Scand. 1993;149:521-523.
38. Burke LM, Pyne DB, Telford RD. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on single-effort sprint performance in elite swimmers. Int J Sport Nutr. 1996;6:222-233.
39. Mujika I, Chatard JC, Lacoste L, et al. Creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in competitive swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28:1435-1441.
40. Cooke WH, Grandjean PW, Barnes WS. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on power output and fatigue during bicycle ergometry. J Appl Physiol. 1995;78:670-673.
41. Earnest CP, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. High-performance capillary electrophoresis-pure creatine monohydrate reduces blood lipids in men and women. Clin Sci (Colch). 1996;91:113-118.
42. Gordon A, Hultman E, Kaijser L, et al. Creatine supplementation in chronic heart failure increases skeletal muscle creatine phosphate and muscle performance. Cardiovasc Res. 1995;30:413-418.
43. Andrews R, Greenhaff P, Curtis S, et al. The effect of dietary creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle metabolism in congestive heart failure. Eur Heart J. 1998;19:617-622.
44. Schaufelberger M, Swedberg K. Is creatine supplementation helpful for patients with chronic heart failure? Eur Heart J. 1998;19:533-534.
45. Juhn MS, Tarnopolsky M. Potential side effects of oral creatine supplementation: a critical review. Clin J Sport Med. 1998;8:298-304.
46. Kreider R, Rasmussen C, Melton C, et al. Long-term creatine supplementation does not adversely affect clinical markers of health. Poster presented at: American College of Sports Medicine 2000 Annual Scientific Meeting; May 31-June 3, 2000; Indianapolis, IN.
47. Volek JS, Mazzetti SA, Farquhar WB, et al. Physiological responses to short-term exercise in the heat after creatine loading. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1101-1108.
48. Pritchard NR, Kalra PA. Renal dysfunction accompanying oral creatine supplements. Lancet. 1998;351:1252-1253.
49. Koshy KM, Griswold E, Schneeberger EE. Interstitial nephritis in a patient taking creatine. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:814-815.
50. Poortmans JR, Francaux M. Long-term oral creatine supplementation does not impair renal function in healthy athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31:1108-1110.
51. Mihic S, MacDonald JR, McKenzie S, et al. Acute creatine loading increases fat-free mass, but does not affect blood pressure, plasma creatinine, or CK activity in men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:291-296.
52. Yu PH, Deng Y. Potential cytotoxic effect of chronic administration of creatine, a nutrition supplement to augment athletic performance. Med Hypotheses. 2000;54:726-728.
53. Creatine is innocent; FDA rejects creatine role in deaths. Associated Press: April 30, 1998.
54. Hespel P, Eijnde BO, Van Leemputte M, et al. Oral creatine supplementation facilitates the rehabilitation of disuse atrophy and alters the expression of muscle myogenic factors in humans. J Physiol. 2001;536:625-633.
55. Bemben MG, Bemben DA, Loftiss DD, et al. Creatine supplementation during resistance training in college football athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1667-1673.
56. Vorgerd M, Zange J, Kley R, et al. Effect of high-dose creatine therapy on symptoms of exercise intolerance in McArdle disease: Double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Arch Neurol. 2002;59:97-101.
57. Kambis KW, Pizzedaz SK. Short-term Creatine Supplementation Improves Maximum Quadriceps Contraction in Women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13:97-111.
58. Walter MC, Reilich P, Lochmuller H, et al. Creatine monohydrate in myotonic dystrophy A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. J Neurol. 2002;249:1717-1722.
59. Jan Groeneveld G, Veldink JH, Van Der Tweel I, et al. A randomized sequential trial of creatine in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2003;53:437-445.
60. Roy BD, Bourgeois JM, Mahoney DJ, et al. Dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate prevents corticosteroid-induced attenuation of growth in young rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;80:1008-1014.
61. Branch JD. Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis. Int JSport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13:198-226.
62. Tyler TF, Nicholas SJ, Hershman EB, et al. The effect of creatine supplementation on strength recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32:383-388.
63. Tarnopolsky MA, Mahoney DJ, Vajsar J, et al. Creatine monohydrate enhances strength and body composition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Neurology. 2004;62:1771-1777.
64. Tarnopolsky M, Mahoney D, Thompson T, et al. Creatine monohydrate supplementation does not increase muscle strength, lean body mass, or muscle phosphocreatine in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1. Muscle Nerve. 2004;29:51-58.
65. Shefner JM, Cudkowicz ME, Schoenfeld D, et al. A clinical trial of creatine in ALS. Neurology. 2004;63:1656-1661.
66. Branch JD. Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13:198-226.
67. Rawson ES, Volek JS. Effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2003;17:822-831.
68. Branch JD. Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13:198-226.
69. Branch JD. Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: a meta-analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003;13:198-226.
70. Glaister M, Lockey RA, Abraham CS, et al. Creatine supplementation and multiple sprint running performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20:273-277.
71. Cornish SM, Chilibeck PD, Burke DG. The effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on sprint skating in ice-hockey players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2006;46:90-98.
72. Pluim BM, Ferrauti A, Broekhof F, et al. The effects of creatine supplementation on selected factors of tennis specific training. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40:507-511;discussion 511-512.
73. Chilibeck PD, Stride D, Farthing JP, et al. Effect of creatine ingestion after exercise on muscle thickness in males and females. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:1781-1788.
74. Astorino TA, Marrocco AC, Gross SM, et al. Is Running performance enhanced with creatine serum ingestion? J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19:730-734.
75. Roy BD, De Beer J, Harvey D, et al. Creatine monohydrate supplementation does not improve functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86:1293-1298.
76. Fuld JP, Kilduff LP, Neder JA, et al. Creatine supplementation during pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 2005;60:531-537.
77. Kendall RW, Jacquemin G, Frost R, et al. Creatine supplementation for weak muscles in persons with chronic tetraplegia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. J Spinal Cord Med. 2005;28:208-213
78. McMorris T, Harris RC, Swain J, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with mild exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Jan 17. [Epub ahead of print]
79. Rae C, Digney AL, McEwan SR, et al. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Proc R Soc Biol Sci. 2003;270:2147-2150.
80. Norman K, Stubler D, Baier P, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on nutritional status, muscle function and quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer-A double blind randomised controlled trial. Clin Nutr. 2006 May 12. [Epub ahead of print]
81. Cornish SM, Chilibeck PD, Burke DG. The effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on sprint skating in ice-hockey players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2006;46:90-98.
82. Theodorou AS, Havenetidis K, Zanker CL, et al. Effects of Acute Creatine Loading With or Without Carbohydrate on Repeated Bouts of Maximal Swimming in High-Performance Swimmers. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19:265-269.
83. Glaister M, Lockey RA, Abraham CS, et al. Creatine supplementation and multiple sprint running performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20:273-277.
84. Pluim BM, Ferrauti A, Broekhof F, et al. The effects of creatine supplementation on selected factors of tennis specific training. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40:507-511;discussion 511-512.
85. Chilibeck PD, Stride D, Farthing JP, et al. Effect of creatine ingestion after exercise on muscle thickness in males and females. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:1781-1788.
86. Eckerson JM, Stout JR, Moore GA, et al. Effect of Creatine Phosphate Supplementation on Anaerobic Working Capacity and Body Weight After Two and Six Days of Loading in Men and Women. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19:756-763.
87. Astorino, T.A., A.C. Marrocco, S.M. Gross, D.L. Johnson, C.M. Brazil, M.E. Icenhower, and R.J. Kneessi. Is running performance enhanced with creatine serum ingestion? J. Strength Cond. Res. 2005;19:730-734.
88. Peyrebrune MC, Stokes K, Hall GM, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation on training for competition in elite swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37:2140-2147.
89. Mendel RW, Blegen M, Cheatham C, et al. Effects of creatine on thermoregulatory responses while exercising in the heat. Nutrition. 2005;21:301-307.
90. Groeneveld GJ, Beijer C, Veldink JH, et al. Few adverse effects of long-term creatine supplementation in a placebo-controlled trial. Int J Sports Med. 2005;26:307-313.
91. Derave W, Vanden Eede E, Hespel P, et al. Oral creatine supplementation in humans does not elevate urinary excretion of the carcinogen N-nitrososarcosine. Nutrition. 2006 Jan 12. [Epub ahead of print]
92. Kammer RT. Lone atrial fibrillation associated with creatine monohydrate supplementation. Pharmacotherapy. 2005;25:762-764.
93. Bender A, Koch W, Elstner M, et al. Creatine supplementation in Parkinson disease: a placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial. Neurology. 2006;67:1262-1264.
94. Weiss BA, Powers ME. Creatine supplementation does not impari the thermoregulatory response during a bout of exercise in the heat. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2006;46:555-563.
95. Gualano B, Novaes RB, Artioli GG, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in sedentary healthy males undergoing aerobic training. Amino Acids. 2007 Mar 30. [Epub ahead of print]
96. Easton C, Turner S, Pitsiladis YP. Creatine and glycerol hyperhydration in trained subjects before exercise in the heat. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007;17:70-91.
97. Chung YL, Alexanderson H, Pipitone N, et al. Creatine supplements in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies who are clinically weak after conventional pharmacologic treatment: Six-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Apr 30. [Epub ahead of print]
98. Kaptsan A, Odessky A, Osher Y, et al. Lack of efficacy of 5 grams daily of creatine in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68:881-884.
99. Wright GA, Grandjean PW, Pascoe DD. The effects of creatine loading on thermoregulation and intermittent sprint exercise performance in a hot humid environment. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21:655-660.
100. Cramer JT, Stout JR, Culbertson JY, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation and three days of resistance training on muscle strength, power output, and neuromuscular function. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21:668-677.
101. Faager G, Soderlund K, Skold CM, et al. Creatine supplementation and physical training in patients with COPD: a double blind, placebo-controlled study. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2006;1:445-453.
102. Gualano B, Ugrinowitsch C, Novaes RB, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on renal function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008 Jan 11.
103. Ostojic SM, Ahmetovic Z. Gastrointestinal distress after creatine supplementation in athletes: are side effects dose dependent? Res Sports Med. 2008;16:15-22.
104. Deacon SJ, Vincent EE, Greenhaff PL, et al. Randomised controlled trial of dietary creatine as an adjunct therapy to physical training in COPD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Apr 17.
105. Rawson ES, Lieberman HR, Walsh TM, et al. Creatine supplementation does not improve cognitive function in young adults. Physiol Behav. 2008 May 15.
106. Rosenfeld J, King RM, Jackson CE, et al. Creatine monohydrate in ALS: Effects on strength, fatigue, respiratory status and ALSFRS. Amyotroph Lateral Scler. 2008 Apr 7. [Epub ahead of print]
107. Horjus DL, Oudman I, van Montfrans GA, Brewster LM. Creatine and creatine analogues in hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Nov 9;11:CD005184.
Last reviewed December 2015 by EBSCO CAM Review Board
Last Updated: 12/15/2015
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.