(Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy; HIE; Cerebral Hypoxia)
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by Cynthia M. Johnson, MA
Perinatal asphyxia is a condition in which a baby’s brain does not receive enough oxygen before, during, or after birth. This results in cardiorespiratory or brain damage.
Asphyxia can be fatal. Brain cells can begin dying within as little as 5 minutes without oxygen. It can also cause permanent, long-term damage, including intellectual disability, delayed development, seizure disorder, and cerebral palsy.
Perinatal asphyxia can be caused by a number of conditions that stop or slow the normal blood and oxygen flow to the baby's brain before or during labor and delivery. Some factors that may cause these problems include:
Risk Factors TOP
Factors that may increase your baby’s chance of perinatal asphyxia include:
Mild asphyxia may cause:
Severe asphyxia may cause:
A physical exam will be done. Typically, the history is the most important factor in making the diagnosis.
Your baby’s body fluids may be tested. This can be done with blood tests, urine tests, stool tests, and tests of the fluid around the brain and spine.
Images may need to be taken of your baby’s body structures. This can be done with:
Your baby’s heart and brain activity may also be tested. This can be done with:
Life-sustaining treatment may be used if reduced brain function has happened, but there is no extensive damage yet. Treatment options include mechanical ventilation to take over or support breathing and oxygen therapy. These treatments will be stopped as your baby recovers.
Medication may be needed to support heart function until your baby recovers. Medication and general anesthesia may also be given to control seizures.
Lowering Body Temperature TOP
Your baby may be wrapped in cooling blankets within hours of birth. This will lower body temperature and reduce the risk of tissue injury and reduce the risk of long-term problems.
In most cases, asphyxia is sudden and cannot be prevented.
Brain Injury Association of America
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Ontario Brain Injury Association
Birth asphyxia. Seattle Children's website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed March 6, 2018.
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Harrington DJ, Redman CW, Moulden M, Greenwood CE. The long-term outcome in surviving infants with Apgar zero at 10 minutes: a systematic review of the literature and hospital-based cohort. Am J Obstet Gynecol . 2007;196(5):463.e1-e5.
Itoo BA, Al-Hawsawi ZM, et al. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Incidence and risk factors in North Western Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2003;24(2):147-153.
Lai MC, Yang SN. Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. J Biomed Biotechnol. [Epub 2010 Dec 13].
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed... . Updated August 28, 2017. Accessed March 6, 2018.
8/11/2014 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed... : Azzopardi D, Strohm B, Marlow N, et al. Effects of hypothermia for perinatal asphyxia on childhood outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(2):140-149.
Last reviewed March 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Alan Drabkin, MD
Last Updated: 4/4/2016
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