(Dyspepsia; Non-ulcer Dyspepsia; Non-ulcer Stomach Pain)
by Cynthia M. Johnson, MA
Indigestion is discomfort in the upper belly or chest. It may result in pain or a burning feeling after eating. A person may also have nausea, belching, or bloating.
The exact cause is not known. It is due to an action in the stomach or intestine.
Most often, it is linked to unhealthy lifestyle habits. These habits can make it hard for the body to properly digest food.
These lifestyle habits may raise the risk:
Problems may be:
When Should I Call My Doctor?
It is common to have indigestion from time to time. If it gets worse or happens more often, make an appointment to see the doctor.
You should also call the doctor if you have:
When Should I Call for Medical Help Right Away?
Most indigestion is not serious. However, sometimes it is a sign of a more serious health problem. Call for medical help or go to the emergency room right away if you have:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. This is often enough to make the diagnosis.
Underlying causes will need to be treated. The goal of treatment is to manage symptoms. Choices are:
Diet and Lifestyle Changes
It may help to eat smaller meals throughout the day instead of three large meals. A dietitian can help with meal planning. Avoiding foods and drinks that trigger symptoms may also help, such as:
Lifestyle changes that may help are:
Medicines may be given to ease symptoms, such as:
Probiotics and prebiotics may also be advised.
People who are not helped by these methods may benefit from counseling. It may help ease symptoms.
Healthy diet and lifestyle habits may lower the risk of indigestion.
American College of Gastroenterology
American Gastroenterological Association
Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
The College of Family Physicians of Canada
Chisty A. (2021). Update on Indigestion. The Medical clinics of North America, 105(1), 19–30.
Dyspepsia. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: https://familydoctor.org/condition/dyspepsia. Accessed February 3, 2021.
Functional dyspepsia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/functional-dyspepsia. Accessed February 3, 2021.
Indigestion (dyspepsia). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/indigestion-dyspepsia. Accessed February 3, 2021.
Moayyedi PM, Lacy BE, et al. ACG and CAG Clinical Guideline: Management of Dyspepsia. Am J Gastroenterol. 2017 Jul;112(7):988-1013.
Last reviewed December 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Dianne Scheinberg Rishikof MS, RD, LDN
Last Updated: 2/3/2021
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at email@example.com. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.
All rights reserved.