Ebola Virus Disease

Pronounced: ee-BOWL-uh Vi-russ Dizz-ez


Ebola is a rare, life-threatening, viral infection. It is found in humans and animals. It needs care right away.


The infection is caused by ebolaviruses. The viruses pass between people through contact with:

  • Blood, feces, or vomit from an infected person
  • Infected animals such as fruit bats, rodents, apes, or monkeys
  • Objects that are contaminated with the virus

The viruses enter the body though breaks in the skin. They can also enter the eyes, nose, or mouth.

Virus Attack on Cell

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Risk Factors

Ebola is most common in central Africa. The risk is higher for those who live in or travel to that area.

The risk is highest for those who:

  • Work in health care
  • Live with infected people
  • Handle infected animals
  • Share infected objects, especially needles


Common symptoms of Ebola are:

  • Fever
  • Headaches
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Joint and muscle aches
  • Rash
  • Red eyes
  • Bleeding


The doctor will ask about symptoms, travel and health history. A physical exam may be done. Ebola is diagnosed by blood tests.


Treatment is focused on life support. It involves giving:

  • IV fluids
  • IV electrolytes
  • Oxygen support
  • Blood pressure support


Ebola may be prevented by:

  • Avoiding contact with people infected with Ebola
  • Not traveling during outbreaks
  • Wearing masks, gloves, gowns, and goggles
  • Not sharing or reusing needles


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
World Health Organization


Public Health Agency of Canada


Ebola virus disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola. Accessed February 2, 2021.
Ebola virus disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/ebola-virus-disease. Accessed February 2, 2021.
Ebola virus disease. World Health Organization (WHO) website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed February 2, 2021.
Feldmann H, Sprecher A, et al. Ebola. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(19):1832-1842.
Last reviewed September 2020 by David L. Horn, MD, FACP
Last Updated: 2/2/2021

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