Restless Legs Syndrome
by Cynthia M. Johnson, MA
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a problem of the nerves. It causes unpleasant sensations in the legs and urges to move them. RLS symptoms are worse at rest and can make it hard to sleep well. Poor sleep can lead to exhaustion and problems working or getting through the day.
The exact cause is not known. Certain genes may be cause or increase the risk RLS. It may also be unmasked or worsened by some medicine, changes in level of iron, and other illnesses.
RLS is more common in women. It is also more common in people over 65 years of age. Other things that may raise the risk are:
RLS can cause:
You will be asked about your symptoms and past health. A physical exam will be done. This is often enough to make the diagnosis. There is no test for RLS itself. Tests may be done to look for things triggering RLS. Tests may include:
Treatment can help to ease symptoms that are getting in the way of day-to-day life. Home care steps may include:
Iron supplements may be helpful if low iron levels are linked to problems. Managing current medicine or other health problems may also ease symptoms.
Medicine may be needed for severe symptoms. They may help to ease symptoms and improve sleep. Types of medicine that may be used include:
There are no steps to prevent RLS.
National Sleep Foundation
Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation
Garcia-Borreguero D, Cano-Pumarega I. New concepts in the management of restless legs syndrome. BMJ. 2017 Feb 27;356:j104.
Gonzalez-Latapi P, Malkani R. Update on restless leg syndrome: from mechanisms to treatment. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2019;19(8):54.
Restless legs syndrome fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed October 2, 2020.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/restless-legs-syndrome-rls. Accessed October 2, 2020.
Understanding RLS. Restless Legs Syndrome Disease Foundation website. Available at: https://www.rls.org/understanding-rls. Accessed October 2, 2020.
Winkelman JW, Armstrong MJ, et al. Practice guideline summary: Treatment of restless leg syndrome in adults: Report of the Guideline, Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2016;87(24):2585-93.
Last reviewed March 2021 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Rimas Lukas, MD
Last Updated: 5/25/2021
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.