How to Say It: pair-e-kar-DI-tis
by Cynthia M. Johnson, MA
Pericarditis is an inflammation of the sac around the heart. In some people, this may cause fluid to build up in the sac and make it hard for the heart to move. Early treatment can improve outcomes.
The exact cause is not known. Infections, injuries, or chronic disease may play a role.
Things that may raise the risk of this problem are:
Chest pain is a common symptom. It may start over the left side or center of the chest and spread to the neck and left shoulder. It is usually a sharp, stabbing pain that may be worse with deep breathing or lying down.
Other problems may be:
The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. It will focus on the heart. The doctor will listen for a grating or rubbing sound in your child’s heart. There may also be a crackle sound in your child’s lungs.
Blood tests will be done to look for signs of inflammation.
Images of the chest may be taken. This can be done with:
Your child's heart activity may be tested. This can be done with an electrocardiogram (EKG).
Any underlying causes like infection will need to be treated. Other symptoms will be managed medicines, such as:
Children who are not helped by these methods may need surgery. Choices are:
There are no current guidelines to prevent pericarditis.
American Heart Association
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute
Canadian Cardiovascular Society
Canadian Family Physician
Acute and recurrent pericarditis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/acute-and-recurrent-pericarditis. Accessed March 9, 2021.
Pediatric pericarditis. Cincinnati Children's website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed March 9, 2021.
Pericarditis. Seattle Children's Hospital website. Available at https://www.seattlechildrens.org/conditions/pericarditis. Accessed March 9, 2021.
Yusuf SW, Hassan SA, et al. Pericardial disease: a clinical review. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2016;14(4):525-539.
Last reviewed December 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Kari Kassir, MD
Last Updated: 3/9/2021
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.