Winter Warning: Tips for Preventing Frostbite and Hypothermia

Outdoor sports don't have to stop just because it is cold. In fact, many hikers, bikers, runners, and obviously skiers and snowshoers relish the invigorating cold of the winter months.

Before you head out for a day-long excursion in seriously cold weather, take the following steps to avoid frostbite and hypothermia.

Stay Warm and Dry With Layers of Clothing

Wear clothing in layers. The number of layers will vary according to the temperature and thickness of the layers and may include:

  • An outer layer made of water-repellent and wind-proof material such as Goretex or nylon.
  • Middle layer(s) of wool or synthetic fabric such as Qualofil or Pile to absorb sweat and retain insulation.
  • A synthetic layer such as polypropylene or Capilene closest to your skin to wick away moisture from perspiration.

It is just as important to stay dry as it is to stay warm, including keeping sweat away from your skin. Ajust layers as needed and bring extra clothes to change into if they become wet, especially from sweat.

Cover Up

Cover your head, face, and neck with a hat (or hood) and scarf or a balaclava. Since mittens are warmer, but gloves allow more use of your fingers, try wearing lightweight gloves under your mittens in case you need to use your hands. Keep your feet warm and dry with extra thick or 2 pairs of socks (wool or synthetic).

Stay Hydrated

Dehydration can contribute to hypothermia. Drink plenty of water and drinks with electrolytes if you will be active for a long period of time. Avoid drinks with alcohol and caffeine.

Eat for Heat

Your body needs food to fuel your exercise and to generate body heat, so do not head out on an empty stomach. And bring along plenty of snacks, like trail mix, energy bars, fruit, and bread.

Monitor Your Energy

Fatigue can contribute to hypothermia, so be aware of your energy level and plan the length of your excursion accordingly. Rest when necessary and cut the outing short if you are uncertain about your stamina.

Bring a Buddy

A friend can help you if you get tired and keep an eye on your face, cheeks, and ears for signs of frostbite. Do periodic checks for cold, wet, and numb areas, especially your face, feet, and hands.

Choose Your Days Wisely

Temperatures below freezing (32°F or 0°C) and slightly higher temperatures accompanied by wind chill effects are risk factors for hypothermia and frostbite. Keep an eye on weather forecasts and plan your outdoor activities for the relatively warmer days without snow or rain.


Appalachian Mountain Club
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians


Canadian Red Cross


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Accessed March 1, 2016.
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Updated December 15, 2011. Accessed March 1, 2016.
Hypothermia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
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Updated November 19, 2012. Accessed March 1, 2016.
Keep your warmth: how to avoid, recognize, and treat hypothermia. Appalachian Mountain Club website. Available at:
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Accessed March 1, 2016.
Outdoor safety. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
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Updated December 3, 2012. Accessed March 1, 2016.
Last reviewed March 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Last Updated: 3/1/2016

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