Kava is a member of the pepper family that has long been cultivated by Pacific Islanders for use as a social and ceremonial drink. The first description of kava came to the West from Captain James Cook on his celebrated voyages through the South Seas. Cook reported that on occasions when village elders and chieftains gathered together for significant meetings, they would hold an elaborate kava ceremony. Typically, each participant would drink two or three bowls of chewed kava mixed with coconut milk. Kava was also drunk in less formal social settings as a mild intoxicant.
When they learned about kava's effects, European scientists set to work trying to isolate its active ingredients. However, it wasn't until 1966 that substances named kavalactones were isolated and found to be effective sedatives. One of the most active of these is dihydrokavain, which has been found to produce a sedative, painkilling, and anticonvulsant effect.1,2,3 Other named kavalactones include kavain, methysticin, and dihydromethysticin.
High doses of kava extracts are thought to cause muscle relaxation and even paralysis (without loss of consciousness) at very high doses.4-7 Kava also has local anesthetic properties, producing peculiar numbing sensations when held in the mouth.
The method of action of kava is not fully understood. Conventional tranquilizers in the Valium family interact with special binding sites in the brain called GABA receptors. Early studies of kava suggested that the herb does not affect these receptors.8 However, more recent studies have found an interaction.9,10 The early researchers may have missed the connection because kava appears to affect somewhat unusual parts of the brain.
What Is Kava Used for Today?
Like other anxiety-reducing drugs, kava could be useful for insomnia, but most of the supporting evidence for this use remains inconclusive.11,12 One small, double-blind study found that daily use of kava reduced sleep disturbances linked to anxiety.40 However, a larger study failed to find benefits in people with both insomnia and anxiety.55 A systematic review of 14 randomized trials using kava and other herbal remedies for insomnia supported previous findings, but conceded that more research is needed.57
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Kava?
There have been at least 11 placebo-controlled studies of kava, involving a total of more than 700 people.13,16,18,38,39,41-43, 55 Most found kava helpful for anxiety symptoms.
One of the best of these was a 6-month, double-blind study that tested kava's effectiveness in 100 people with various forms of anxiety.13 Over the course of the trial, they were evaluated with a list of questions called the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A). The HAM-A assigns a total score based on such symptoms as restlessness, nervousness, heart palpitations, stomach discomfort, dizziness, and chest pain. Lower scores indicate reduced anxiety. Participants who were given kava showed significantly improved scores beginning at 8 weeks and continuing throughout the duration of the treatment.
This study is notable for the long delay before kava was effective. Previous studies had shown a good response in one week.14,15,16 The reason for this discrepancy is unclear.
Several double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have specifically tested kava for the treatment of the anxiety that often occurs during menopause.15,16, 38 In one study, 40 women were given either kava plus standard hormone therapy or hormone therapy alone for a period of 6 months. The results showed that women given kava experienced greater improvement in symptoms than those given hormone therapy alone.
However, not all studies have been positive. One double-blind, placebo-controlled study failed to find kava effective for people with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).39 Another study failed to find kava more effective than placebo for people with both anxiety and insomnia.55
Besides these placebo-controlled studies, one 6-month, double-blind study compared kava against two standard anxiety drugs (oxazepam and bromazepam) in 174 people with anxiety symptoms.18 Improvement in HAM-A scores was about the same in all groups. Another study found kava equally effective as the drugs buspirone and opipramol.44
A 5-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial studied 40 people who had been taking standard anti-anxiety drugs ( benzodiazepines) for an average duration of 20 months.17 Participants were gradually tapered off their medications and switched to kava or placebo. Individuals taking kava showed some improvement in anxiety symptoms. This would appear to indicate that kava can successfully be substituted for benzodiazepine drugs. However, participants who were switched from benzodiazepines to placebo showed little to no increase in anxiety, suggesting perhaps that they didn't really need medication after all! Thus, the results of this study are hard to interpret.
Note : This trial involved close medical supervision and very gradual tapering of benzodiazepine dosages. Do not discontinue anti-anxiety medications without supervision. Withdrawal symptoms can be life-threatening.
A typical dosage of kava when used for treatment of anxiety is 300 mg daily of a product standardized to contain 70% kavalactones. A lower dose of 150 mg daily has also been tested, but may be less effective.45,46
The typical dosage for insomnia is 210 mg of kavalactones 1 hour before bedtime.
Kava is generally considered safe, but there have been concerns about its toxic effects on the liver. A study of 4,049 people who took a rather low dose of kava (70 mg of kavalactones daily) for 7 weeks found side effects in 1.5% of cases. These were mostly mild gastrointestinal complaints and allergic rashes.21 A 4-week study of 3,029 people given 240 mg of kavalactones daily showed a 2.3% incidence of basically the same side effects.22 One review of the literature concluded that "the data support the safety of kava in treating anxiety at 280 mg kava lactones daily for 4 weeks."47
However, a growing number of case reports have raised serious concerns about kava’s safety. These reports suggest that, occasionally, even normal doses of kava can cause severe liver injury.25,26,36,37,48-50 However, case reports are notorious for failing to show cause and effect without the use of comparative controls. Some well-regarded experts who have reviewed the literature feel that kava has not been shown to be unsafe.51,52,59 In a report examining 26 alleged liver toxicity cases in kava users, consuming the herb at the recommended daily dose (less than 120 mg) and duration (less than 3 months) was clearly linked with only one case.56 In all other cases, kava was either not implicated, was taken inappropriately, or was combined with another drug.
A literature review citing two separate randomized trials and a review of 11 other randomized trials found no adverse liver affects. In the trials, kava was used as a treatment for anxiety with or without depression. Dosage in 2 of the trials was 240 or 250 mg of kavalactones. The length of time varied between studies.60
There are other safety concerns as well. For example, kava should not be used by individuals who have had "acute dystonic reactions." These consist of spasms in the muscles of the neck and movements of the eyes, which are believed to be related to effects on dopamine. They are typically caused by antipsychotic drugs, which affect dopamine. Kava might trigger such reactions, too.24
One study suggests that kava does not amplify the effects of alcohol.32 However, there is a case report indicating that kava can increase the effects of certain sedative drugs.33 For this reason, kava probably should not be combined with any drugs that depress mental function. Kava should also not be combined with antipsychotic drugs or drugs used for Parkinson's disease, due to the potential for increased problems with movement.34
Kava is not available in every country. The countries that allow the use of kava may do so with strict regulations. If you wish to use this herb, seek physician supervision. People with current liver problems, who drink alcohol excessively, or who take medications that can harm the liver, may have an increased risk of harm by kava. Kava also interacts with certain other medications you may be taking.
Kava is not recommended in women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Interactions You Should Know About
If you are taking:
1. Meyer HJ, Kretzschmar R. Kawa pyrone—a new kind of substance group of central muscle relaxants of the mephenesin type [translated from German]. Klin Wochenschr. 1966;44:902-903.
2. Klohs MW, Keller F, Williams RE, et al. A chemical and pharmacological investigation of Piper methysticum Forst. J Med Pharm Chem. 1959;1:95-103.
3. Bruggemann VF, Meyer HJ. Studies on the analagesic efficacy of the kava constituents dihydrokavain (DHK) and dihydromethysticin (DHM) [in German; English abstract]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1963;13:407-409.
4. Meyer HJ. Pharmacology of the active compounds of the kava rhizome ( Piper methysticum Forst) [translated from German]. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1962;138:505-536.
5. Meyer HJ, May HU. Local anaesthetic properties of natural Kava pyrones [translated from German]. Klin Wochenschr. 1964;42:407.
6. Meyer HJ, Kretzschmar R. Kawa pyrone—a new kind of substance group of central muscle relaxants of the mephenesin type [translated from German]. Klin Wochenschr. 1966;44:902-903.
7. Singh YN. Effects of kava on neuromuscular transmission and muscle contractility. J Ethnopharmacol. 1983;7:267-276.
8. Davies LP, Drew CA, Duffield P, et al. Kava pyrones and resin: Studies on GABAA, GABAB and benzodiazepine binding sites in rodent brain. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1992;71:120-126.
9. Jussofie A, Schmiz A, Hiemke C. Kavapyrone enriched extract from Piper methysticum as modulator of the GABA binding site in different regions of rat brain. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994;116:469-474.
10. Boonen G, Haberlein H. Influence of genuine kavapyrone enantiomers on the GABA A binding site. Planta Med. 1998;64:504-506.
11. Emser W, Bartylla K. Improvement in sleep quality. Effect of kava extract WS 1490 on the sleep pattern in healthy subjects [in German, English abstract]. Neurol Psychiatr. 1991;5:636-642.
12. Holm E, Staedt U, Heep J, et al. The action profile of D,L-kavain. Cerebral sites and sleep-wakefulness-rhythm in animals [in German]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1991;41:673-683.
13. Volz HP, Kieser M. Kava-kava extract WS 1490 versus placebo in anxiety disorders—a randomized placebo-controlled 25-week outpatient trial. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997;30:1-5.
14. Kinzler E, Kromer J, Lehmann E. Effect of a special kava extract in patients with anxiety-, tension-, and excitation states of non-psychotic genesis. Double blind study with placebos over 4 weeks [translated from German]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1991;41:584-588.
15. Warnecke G, Pfaender H, Gerster G, et al. Efficacy of an extract of kava root in patients with climacteric syndrome. A double blind study with a new mono-preparation [translated from German]. Z Phytother. 1990;11:81-86.
16. Warnecke G. Psychosomatic disorders in the female climacterium, clinical efficacy and tolerance of kava extract WS 1490 [translated from German]. Fortschr Med. 1991;109:119-122.
17. Malsch U, Klement S. Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial of a special extract of kava roots (WS 1490) in patients with anxiety disorders of non-psychotic origin [abstract]. Eur Phytojournal [serial online]. 2000(1). ESCOP website. Available at: http://www.escop.com/issue_1. Accessed May 10, 2001.
18. Woelk H, Kapoula O, Lehrl S, et al. The treatment of patients with anxiety. A double blind study: kava extract WS 1490 versus benzodiazepine [translated from German]. Z Allg Med. 1993;69:271-277.
19. Cropley M, Cave Z. Effect of kava and valerian on physiological responses to psychological stress assessed under laboratory conditions [abstract]. FACT. 2001;6:76.
21. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:71.
22. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:71.
23. Norton SA, Ruze P. Kava dermopathy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;31:89-97.
24. Schelosky L, Raffauf C, Jendroska K, et al. Kava and dopamine antagonism [letter]. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1995;58:639-640.
25. Escher M, Desmeules J, Giostra E, et al. Hepatitis associated with Kava, a herbal remedy for anxiety. BMJ. 2001;322:139.
26. Strahl S, Ehret V, Dahm HH, et al. Necrotizing hepatitis after taking herbal remedies [translated from German]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1998;123:1410-1414.
27. Munte TF, Heinze HJ, Matzke M, et al. Effects of oxazepam and an extract of kava roots ( Piper methysticum) on event-related potentials in a word recognition task. Neuropsychobiology. 1993;27:46-53.
28. Heinze HJ, Munthe TF, Steitz J, et al. Pharmacopsychological effects of oxazepam and kava-extract in a visual search paradigm assessed with event-related potentials. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1994;27:224-230.
29. Munte TF, Heinze HJ, Matzke M, et al. Effects of oxazepam and an extract of kava roots ( Piper methysticum) on event-related potentials in a word recognition task. Neuropsychobiology. 1993;27:46-53.
30. Heinze HJ, Munthe TF, Steitz J, et al. Pharmacopsychological effects of oxazepam and kava-extract in a visual search paradigm assessed with event-related potentials. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1994;27:224-230.
31. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:72.
32. Herberg KW. Effect of Kava-Special Extract WS 1490 combined with ethyl alcohol on safety-relevant performance parameters [in German, English abstract]. Blutalkohol. 1993;30:96-105.
33. Almeida JC, Grimsley EW. Coma from the health food store: interaction between kava and alprazolam [letter]. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125:940-941.
34. Schelosky L, Raffauf C, Jendroska K, et al. Kava and dopamine antagonism [letter]. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1995;58:639-640.
36. Russmann S, Lauterburg BH, Helbling A. Kava hepatotoxicity [letter]. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135:68-69.
37. Kraft M, Spahn TW, Menzel J, et al. Fulminant liver failure after administration of the herbal antidepressant Kava-Kava [in German; English abstract]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2001;126:970-972.
38. De Leo V, la Marca A, Morgante G, et al. Evaluation of combining kava extract with hormone replacement therapy in the treatment of postmenopausal anxiety. Maturitas. 2001;39:185-188.
39. Connor KM, Davidson JR. A placebo-controlled study of Kava kava in generalized anxiety disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002;17:185-188.
40. Lehrl S. Clinical efficacy of kava extract WS 1490 in sleep disturbances associated with anxiety disorders. Results of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. J Affect Disord. 2004;78:101-110.
41. Gastpar M, Klimm HD. Treatment of anxiety, tension and restlessness states with Kava special extract WS 1490 in general practice: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind multicenter trial. Phytomedicine. 2003;10:631-639.
42. Geier FP, Konstantinowicz T. Kava treatment in patients with anxiety. Phytother Res. 2004;18:297-300.
43. Lehrl S. Clinical efficacy of kava extract WS((R)) 1490 in sleep disturbances associated with anxiety disorders. Results of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. J Affect Disord. 2004;78:101-110.
44. Boerner RJ, Sommer H, Berger W, et al. Kava-kava extract LI 150 is as effective as Opipramol and Buspirone in generalised anxiety disorder—an 8-week randomized, double-blind multi-centre clinical trial in 129 out-patients. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(suppl 4):38-49.
45. Gastpar M, Klimm HD. Treatment of anxiety, tension and restlessness states with Kava special extract WS 1490 in general practice: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind multicenter trial. Phytomedicine. 2003;10:631-639.
46. Geier FP, Konstantinowicz T. Kava treatment in patients with anxiety. Phytother Res. 2004;18:297-300.
47. Connor KM, Davidson JR, Churchill LE, et al. Adverse-effect profile of kava. CNS Spectr. 2004;6:848-853.
48. Russmann S, Barguil Y, Cabalion P, et al. Hepatic injury due to traditional aqueous extracts of kava root in New Caledonia. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003;15:1033-1036.
49. Anke J, Ramzan I. Abstract Kava Hepatotoxicity: are we any closer to the truth? Planta Med. 2004;70:193-196.
50. Teschke R, Gaus W, Loew D. Kava extracts: safety and risks including rare hepatotoxicity. Phytomedicine. 2003;10:440-446.
51. Schulze J, Raasch W, Siegers CP. Related Articles, Links Abstract Toxicity of kava pyrones, drug safety and precautions—a case study. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(suppl 4):68-73. Review.
52. Anke J, Ramzan I. Abstract Kava Hepatotoxicity: are we any closer to the truth? Planta Med. 2004;70:193-196.
53. Thompson R, Ruch W, Hasenohrl RU. Enhanced cognitive performance and cheerful mood by standardized extracts of Piper methysticum (Kava-kava). Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004;19:243-250.
54. Cairney S, Maruff P, Clough AR, et al. Saccade and cognitive impairment associated with kava intoxication. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2003;18:525-533.
55. Jacobs BP, Bent S, Tice JA, et al. An internet-based randomized, placebo-controlled trial of kava and valerian for anxiety and insomnia. Medicine. 2005;84:197-207.
56. Teschke R, Schwarzenboeck A, Hennermann KH. Kava hepatotoxicity: a clinical survey and critical analysis of 26 suspected cases. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;20:1182-1193.
57. Leach MJ, Page AT. Herbal medicine for insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev. 2015;24:1-12.
58. Lu L, Liu Y, Zhu W. Traditional medicine in the treatment of drug addiction. 2009;35(1):1-11.
59. Kutchta K, Schmidt M, Nahrstedt A. German kava ban lifted by court: the alleged hepatotoxicity of kava (Piper methysticum) as a case of ill-defined herbal drug identity, lacking quality control, and misguided regulatory politics. Planta Med. 2015;81(18):1647-1653.
60. Pantano F, Tittarelli R, Mannocchi G, et al. Hepatotoxicity induced by "the 3Ks": kava, kratom, and khat. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(4).
Last reviewed December 2015 by EBSCO CAM Review Board
Last Updated: 5/26/2016
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at email@example.com. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.