Thyroid cancer starts in cells in a gland in the neck called the thyroid. The thyroid gland makes hormones. Cancer can change how the hormones are released and cause a range of symptoms.
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There are several types of thyroid cancer:
- Papillary carcinoma (most common type)—It usually grows very slowly but often spreads to lymph nodes.
- Follicular carcinoma (second most common type)—It usually stays in the thyroid gland, but can spread to other parts of the body. Common areas of spread include the lungs and bones. It does not usually spread to the lymph nodes. This type of thyroid cancer is often curable when found early.
- Anaplastic carcinoma (rare form of thyroid cancer)—Quickly invades the neck and other parts of the body. This form is often fatal.
- Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC)—Often spreads to the lymph nodes, lungs, or liver before a thyroid mass has been found. There are 2 types of MTC:
- Sporadic MTC
- Familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC)
- Thyroid lymphoma (rare type of thyroid cancer)
Cancer occurs when cells grow and develop without control or order. The cells grow and form a tumor. It can then spread into nearby tissue. Cancer cells can also spread to other areas of the body. It is not clear exactly what causes these cells to develop. A combination of genetics and environment probably play a role.
Thyroid cancer is more common in women. It is more common in people aged 30 years and older but can happen at any age. Things that may raise the risk of thyroid cancer include:
Thyroid cancer may cause:
- A lump in the neck, usually over the thyroid
- Neck pain (sometimes going up to the ears)
- Problems swallowing
- Difficulty breathing
- A persistent cough
- Enlarged lymph glands in the neck
A bump in thyroid may be felt during an exam. It may also be seen during a test for something else. The doctor will ask about symptoms and past health. To look for changes in the thyroid the doctor may order:
- Blood tests—to look for hormone changes
- Imaging to look at the thyroid, such as a:
- Thyroid scan
A fine needle aspiration may be done. It will remove a small sample of tissue for biopsy. The tissue will show if cancer cells are there.
The care team will use all test results to determine the type and stage of cancer. Staging is used to guide treatment. Thyroid cancer is staged from 1 to 4. Cancer that has stayed in one area is called Stage 1. Cancer that has spread to other parts of the body is called stage 4.
- Every 3 years for those 20 to 39 years old
- Every year for those 40 years old or older.
The goal of treatment is to remove as much of the cancer as possible. Most thyroid cancers can be cured. Those that cannot be cured may need to be managed to delay or prevent the spread of cancer. Treatment depends on the stage and type of cancer. Options may include:
- Thyroidectomy—Removal of all or part of the thyroid gland. Cancer can spread to lymph nodes on the neck. Nearby nodes may be removed.
- Radioactive iodine therapy—shrinks and destroys cancer and thyroid tissue. This helps to focus the treatment to the thyroid without affecting the rest of the body.
- External radiation therapy—A radiation beam is directed at the tumor from outside the body. It will kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. It may only be helpful in certain types of thyroid cancer.
Chemotherapy is not often used for thyroid cancer. However, it may be used to treat cancer that has spread in the body.
Thyroid treatment and removal will affect the amount of hormones in the body. Medicine may be needed to take the place of missing or lower hormones.
Exposure to radiation is a major risk factor for thyroid cancer. The thyroid should be checked often if there has been radiation to the head, neck, or chest.
- Follicular thyroid cancer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:https://www.dynamed.com/condition/follicular-thyroid-cancer-21.
- Laha D, Nilubol N, et al. New therapies for advanced thyroid cancer. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020;11:82.
- Medullary thyroid cancer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:https://www.dynamed.com/condition/medullary-thyroid-cancer.
- Papillary thyroid cancer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/papillary-thyroid-cancer.
- Thyroid cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/thyroid-cancer.html.
- Thyroid cancer treatment (adult) (PDQ®)–health professional version. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/types/thyroid/hp/thyroid-treatment-pdq.
- Mohei Abouzied, MD, FACP
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