Prostatitis is swelling of the prostate gland in men. There are 4 types of prostatitis:
- Acute bacterial
- Chronic bacterial
- Chronic pelvic pain syndrome
- Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis
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Cause will depend on the type of prostatitis:
- Acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis are caused by an infection. A bacteria enters the prostate. It often comes from the nearby urinary tract or rectum.
- Chronic pelvic pain syndrome and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis—causes are not clearly understood.
A cause may not be found in some people.
Prostatitis is more common in men who use catheters. Other things that may raise the chances of prostatitis are:
- Having sex without using barriers like condoms
- Foreskin that does not to fully draw back from the head of the penis— phimosis
- Urethra that has narrowed
- Prostate that has grown
- Past urinary tract infections
Symptoms depend on the type of prostatitis. Many may not have any problems. Symptoms that do occur may include:
- Needing to urinate (pee) often or feeling an urgent need to often
- Pain or burning while urinating
- Having a hard time passing urine
- Lower belly pain or pressure
- Pain in penis, rectum, and area in between
- Lower back pain
- Fever or chills
- Problems getting or keeping erection
The doctor will ask about symptoms and past health. A physical exam will be done. Other tests may be done to help find a cause or rule out other issues, such as:
- Urine tests
- Prostate biopsy—small piece of prostate is removed and sent to a lab
How prostatitis is treated will depend on its type.
Antibiotics can be used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They may be given over several days or weeks. The antibiotics may be given through an IV for infections that are hard to treat.
Symptoms may be treated with:
- Stool softeners—to ease pressure in area
- Medicine to ease swelling
- Pain medicine
- Medicine to help with urine flow
Alcohol and drinks with caffeine can make symptoms worse.
- Acute bacterial prostatitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/acute-bacterial-prostatitis.
- Chronic bacterial prostatitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/chronic-bacterial-prostatitis.
- Prostatitis: inflammation of the prostate. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/prostate-problems/prostatitis-inflammation-prostate.
- Prostatitis (prostate infection). Urology Care Foundation website. Available at: http://www.urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/prostatitis-(infection-of-the-prostate)?article=15.
- Sharp, V.J., Takacs, E.B., et al. Prostatitis: diagnosis and treatment. American Family Physician, 2010; 82 (4): 397-406.
- 5/18/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/condition/chronic-prostatitis-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome: Zhang, R., Chomistek, A.K., et al. Physical activity and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2015; 7 (4): 757-764.
- Mary-Beth Seymour, RN
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