(Herpes, Genital; Herpes Genitalis; Herpes Simplex, Genital)
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). It results in small, painful, fluid-filled blisters. These blisters break open and leave a sore. They can be found on the sex organs, buttocks, or thighs. They can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the mouth, face, or eyes.
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The infection is caused by the herpes simplex virus. The virus can be spread through:
- Sexual or skin to skin contact with someone who has the virus
- Pregnancy or giving birth—an infection can pass from a mother to her child
It is easy for the virus to spread when there are blisters. But it may still spread to others when blisters are not present.
The strongest risk factor is having unprotected sex with an infected person. Other things that may raise the risk are:
- Having more than one sex partner
- Prior STIs
- Starting to have sex at an early age
Most people do not have symptoms. Those who do will have painful, itchy blisters around the genitals, rectum, or mouth. There may also be a burning feeling when passing urine (pee). The blisters break and leave sores that take about a week to heal. This is called an outbreak. The first outbreak may also result in flu-like symptoms, such as:
- Muscle aches
- Swollen glands
The outbreaks that follow are usually shorter and less severe. They may also decrease over time.
The doctor will ask about symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. It will focus on any sores that are present. This may be enough to suspect genital herpes. Blood or fluid from the blisters may be tested for signs of infection.
There is no cure. The goal of treatment is to manage symptoms and reduce the number of outbreaks. Treatment can also lower the risk of spreading the virus to others. Care may include:
- Antiviral medicines to treat the infection or prevent an outbreak
- Supportive care, such as warm baths when sores are present
- Over the counter pain relievers, such as pain lotions that are applied to the skin
- Counseling to learn how to avoid spreading the virus to others
A person's sex partner will also need to be tested for the virus.
The risk of this problem may be lowered by:
- Not having oral, anal, or genital sex
- Using latex condoms during sex
- Not having oral, anal, or genital sex with a person who has herpes blisters
- Genital herpes. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/genital-herpes.
- Genital herpes. Healthy Women—National Women's Health Resource Center, Inc. website. Available at: https://www.healthywomen.org/condition/genital-herpes.
- Herpes simplex: overview. American Academy of Dermatology website. Available at: https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/a-z/herpes-simplex-overview.
- Elizabeth Margaret Prusak, MD
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