Rotavirus is an infection of the stomach and intestines. It is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children.
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This problem is caused by a specific type of virus. It spreads through the stool of someone with the infection. The infected stool can pass the virus to hands, surfaces, objects, food, or water. The virus then enters the body when any of these infected items come in contact with the mouth.
This problem is more common in children who are 4 months to 2 years of age. Children in childcare settings are at higher risk.
Problems vary from person to person and may be mild to severe. Problems may be:
- Watery diarrhea
- Belly pain
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. This is often enough to make the diagnosis. A stool sample may be taken to identify the virus.
Most people get better on their own in 3 to 8 days. The goal is to manage symptoms and promote healing. Choices are:
- Drinking plenty of fluids or an oral rehydration solution
- Medicines, such as:
- Anti-nausea medicines
- Nitazoxanide to ease diarrhea in children
- Probiotics or zinc supplements to reduce the duration and severity of diarrhea in children
There is a vaccine to prevent rotavirus in babies. It is given as 2 or 3 doses between the ages of 2 to 6 months.
The risk of viral infection may also be lowered by:
- Practicing proper handwashing, especially after using the toilet or changing a diaper
- Not touching the mouth
- Avoiding close contact with people who are infected
- Bányai K, Estes MK, et al. Viral gastroenteritis. Lancet. 2018 Jul 14;392(10142):175-186.
- Rotavirus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/rotavirus/index.html.
- Rotavirus. Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics website. Available at: http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/vaccine-preventable-diseases/Pages/Rotavirus.aspx.
- Rotavirus gastroenteritis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/rotavirus-gastroenteritis.
- Rotavirus vaccine live. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/drug-monograph/rotavirus-vaccine-live.
- Kari Kassir, MD
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