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  • Cynthia M. Johnson, MA
Publication Type:



(Blood in the Urine—Child)


Hematuria means blood in the urine (pee). Urine should not have any blood. There are 2 kinds of hematuria:

  • Microscopic hematuria—Urine has a very small amount of blood that cannot be seen with the naked eye.
  • Gross hematuria—Urine looks red or tea-colored.
The Urinary Tract.

si55551330_urinary tract child.jpghttp://services.epnet.com/getimage.aspx?imageiid=81278127si55551330_urinary tract child.jpgsi55551330_urinary tract childNULLjpgsi55551330_urinary tract child.jpgNULL\\hgfiler1\intellect\images\si55551330_urinary tract child.jpgNULL13NULL2010-07-233593318127_614955Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.


Hematuria can be caused by many things, such as:

Sometimes the exact cause is not found.

Risk Factors

Things that may raise a child's chance of hematuria include:

  • Urinary tract infection
  • Recent upper respiratory tract infection
  • Family history of kidney problems
  • Injury or abuse
  • Medicines, such as some antibiotics or pain relievers
  • Pelvic radiation therapy for cancer treatment


A child may have other symptoms along with hematuria. These other symptoms will depend on what is causing the hematuria. For example, if it is cause by a urinary tract infection a child may have to urinate often. There may also be a burning feeling while they urinate.

Call the child's doctor if there is blood in the urine.


The doctor will ask about symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done.

Tests to look for infections and signs of kidney trouble may include:

  • Urine tests—to check for blood, protein, bacteria, or cancer cells in the urine
  • Blood tests—to check how well the kidneys are working and to look for conditions that cause hematuria

The doctor may also need to look at the kidneys and urinary tract. Imaging tests may include:

Other tests that may be done include:

  • Cystoscopy—to look at the lining of the bladder
  • Kidney biopsy—this is not done very often, but it removes a small piece of kidney for testing


The goals of treatment are to get the blood out of the urine and to address what caused it. How this is down will depend on the cause. Some causes do not require treatment. Other causes can be treated with medicine. For example, a urinary tract infection is treated with antibiotics.

Surgery may be needed if the urinary tract is blocked.


Hematuria cannot always be prevented.





  • Hematuria. Boston Children's Hospital website. Available at: https://www.childrenshospital.org/conditions/hematuria.
  • Hematuria (blood in the urine). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/hematuria-blood-urine.
  • Hematuria in children. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/approach-to/hematuria-in-children-approach-to-the-patient.
  • Urination problems. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: https://familydoctor.org/symptom/urination-problems.


  • Chelsea Skucek, MSN, BS, RNC-NIC
Last Updated:

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.