Malabsorption is a problem getting nutrients into the body. It can happen even when someone is eating enough.
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There are many steps in the process of digestion. The stomach and intestines need to be able to push food through the system. The stomach, liver and pancreas make fluids that help break down food. The nutrients from food pass through the walls of the intestine to the blood. Problems with any part of this process can cause malabsorption.
This problem is more common in people who have:
Problems may be:
- Weak muscles
- Weight loss
- Bloating and swelling in the belly
- Bulky, foul-smelling stools
You will be asked about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. This may be enough to make the diagnosis.
Stool tests may be done to confirm the diagnosis. Other tests may be done to look for a cause.
Treatment will be based on the cause. This may stop malabsorption.
Special food or supplements may be needed to improve nutrition. A person may need more vitamins, minerals, fats, or proteins.
Prevention guidelines depend on what has caused this health problem. Some causes cannot be prevented.
- Bacterial overgrowth syndrome. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal_disorders/malabsorption_syndromes/bacterial_overgrowth_syndrome.html.
- Chronic diarrhea. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/chronic-diarrhea.
- Diarrheal diseases—acute and chronic. American College of Gastroenterology website. Available at: http://patients.gi.org/topics/diarrhea-acute-and-chronic.
- Overview of malabsorption. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal-disorders/malabsorption-syndromes/overview-of-malabsorption.
- Schiller LR, Pardi DS, et al. Chronic Diarrhea: Diagnosis and Management. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Feb;15(2):182-193.e3.
- Dianne Scheinberg Rishikof MS, RD, LDN
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