(Cancer of the Vagina)
Vaginal cancer is a rare growth of cancer cells in the vagina. The vagina is a tube that connects the vulva to the cervix.
There are several types of vaginal cancer:
- Squamous cell carcinoma—occurs in the lining
- Adenocarcinoma—occurs in the gland cells
- Melanoma—usually affects the lower or outer vagina
- Sarcoma—forms deep in the walls
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Cancer happens when cells divide without control or order. These cells grow together to form a tumor. They can invade and damage nearby tissues. They can also spread to other parts of the body.
It is not clear what causes changes in the cells. It is likely a combination of genes and the environment.
Vaginal cancer is more common in women after menopause. Other things that may raise the risk are:
- Smoking and alcohol use
- Having sex at a young age
- Having multiple sex partners in a lifetime
- A history of:
- Past radiation to the pelvic area
- Long term inflammation of the vagina
- A mother who took diethylstilbestrol (DES) while pregnant
Vaginal cancer may not have symptoms. When symptoms occur, they may be:
- Bleeding—after sex and after menopause
- Watery, blood-tinged, or foul-smelling discharge
- A mass in the vagina that can be felt
- Pain or bleeding when passing urine
- Pain in the bladder, pelvis, or rectum
- Pain during sex
- Pain or problems when passing stool, or dark stools
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical and pelvic exam will be done.
Tests may include
- Pap test —tissue from the cervix and vagina is scraped and tested
- Colposcopy —a lighted scope is used to view the vagina and cervix
- Biopsy —tissue samples are taken and tested
Pictures may be taken. This can be done with:
Biopsy will confirm the diagnosis. The exam and test results will be used for staging. This will outline how far and fast the cancer has spread.
The goal is to remove the cancer. Treatment depends on the stage of the cancer. More than one method may be used.
Options may be:
- Radiation therapy—to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors
- Surgery to remove:
- The tumor, nearby tissues, and sometimes the lymph nodes
- Other structures or organs—depending on how far the cancer has spread
- Chemotherapy by pills, injection, or IV—to kill cancer cells
The risk of this problem may be lowered by getting the HPV vaccine.
- Adams TS, Cuello MA. Cancer of the vagina. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2018;143 Suppl 2:14-21.
- Squamous cell carcinoma of vagina. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-vagina.
- Vaginal cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/vaginal-cancer.html.
- Vaginal cancer. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/gynecologic-tumors/vaginal-cancer.
- Vaginal cancer—health professional version. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/types/vaginal/hp.
- Elizabeth Margaret Prusak, MD
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