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Phantom Limb Syndrome

  • Cynthia M. Johnson, MA
Publication Type:


Phantom Limb Syndrome

(Phantom Pain; Phantom Limb; Neuropathic Pain)


Phantom limb syndrome is the feeling of sensations in a limb that has been removed. The limb may feel as though it is still attached to the body. This is because the brain continues to get messages from nerves that used to "feel" for the missing limb.

Nervous System.

CNS and PNShttp://services.epnet.com/getimage.aspx?imageiid=72957295si2012.jpgsi2012.jpgNULLjpgsi2012.jpgNULL\\hgfiler01a\intellect\images\si2012.jpgNULL15NULL2008-11-072543907295_96857Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.


The exact cause is not known. It is thought that the feelings happen because the brain must rewire itself to adjust to the changes in the body.

Risk Factors

This problem is more common in adults. Other things that may raise the risk are:

  • Pre-amputation pain or infection
  • A blood clot in the amputated limb
  • Previous damage to the spinal cord or the peripheral nerves of the affected limb
  • Sudden amputation from trauma, such as an accident
  • The type of anesthesia used during the amputation


The symptoms are felt in a limb that is no longer there. Phantom limb syndrome may cause sensations of:

  • Shooting, stabbing, piercing, or burning pain
  • Pleasure, such as from a light touch
  • Pressure
  • The limb still being attached and working normally
  • Numbness, tickling, or cramping


The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. You will also be asked questions about your amputation. This is often enough to diagnose phantom pain.


Phantom limb syndrome is often brief. It can pass on its own over time. Some people may have lasting pain that is hard to manage. There is no one treatment plan that is best. Treatment will be chosen to help control specific symptoms. Options are:


There are no known methods to prevent this health problem.





  • Richardson C, Kulkarni J. A review of the management of phantom limb pain: challenges and solutions. J Pain Res. 2017;10:1861-1870.
  • Lower extremity amputation. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/procedure/upper-extremity-amputation-15.
  • Upper extremity amputation. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/procedure/upper-extremity-amputation-15.


  • Mary-Beth Seymour, RN
Last Updated:

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.